DIFFERENCES IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL OF H5N1, COVID-19 AND OTHER GLOBAL ZOONOSIS FLU

  • Zata Ismah
  • Saidah Fatimah Sari Simanjuntak
  • Bebby Alfiera Riyandina Hardja
  • Nur Fadhilah Hasanah
  • Rani Elviyanti Siregar
  • Apriliani Apriliani
Keywords: avian influenza, h5n1 virus, covid19, epidemiology, global pandemic, zoonotic flu

Abstract

Human avian influenza has caused serious outbreaks in several countries, especially in Asia, one of which is Indonesia. Human avian influenza has become an important public health problem because of the high mortality rates and because of the possibility of causing a global pandemic. The source of the virus is thought to come from bird migration and transport of infected birds. Laboratory tests can be done by examining leukocytes, platelets in suspected cases. Clinically suspicious of AI testing can be done simultaneously, which is taking blood for serology, throat swabs, nasopharynx, and oropharynx for RT-PCR examination and viral culture gold test as confirmation. Until now it is known that there have been five zoonotic flu diseases that cause a global pandemic and have taken many casualties in the world including SARS, MERS, H1N1, H5N1, and new diseases namely COVID-19. The method to be used for this review is literature study. The data obtained were compiled, analyzed, and concluded in order to get conclusions about the literature study. The five zoonotic flu diseases have differences from one another. So the classification of differences between H5N1 with each of the zoonotic flu diseases above needs to be done.

References

Willschut JC, McElhaney JE, Palache AM. Influenza. (2006) Edisi kedua. Mosby-Elsevier. Edinburg.
Darrell Withworth, dkk, (2008) Burung Liar Dan Flu Burung. Jakarta: FAO.
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Depkes RI, (2005). Flu Burung. Jakarta.
Wolrd Health Organization, (2006) Case definition for human infections with influenza a (H5N1) virus. Geneva.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (2019) Situasi Penyakit Infeksi Emerging, Minggu Epidemiologi.
Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y, (2001) Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 14(1) : 129-149.
Vascellari et al. 2007. Pathologic Findings of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A/Duck/Vietnam/12/05 (H5N1) in Experimentally Infected Pekin Ducks, Based on Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization.Vet Pathol 44:635–642 .
Damayantiet al, (2004) Gambaran klinis dan patologis pada ayam yang terserang flu burung sangat patogenik (HPAI) di beberapa peternakan di Jawa Timur dan Jawa Barat .JITV Vol. 9 No 2 Th.
Ong A, Kindhauser M, Smith I, Chan M, (2008) A global perspective on avian influenza. Annals of the Academy ofMed, Singapore, 37: 477-81.
Writing Committee of the Second WHO (2008) Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med;358:261-73.
Ririh Y, Sudarmaji, (2006) Mengenal Flu Burung dan Bagimana Kita Menyikapinya. Forum Penelitian, 1 (2): 183-196.
Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika RI (2006)Flu burung ancaman dan pencegahan,(Jakarta: Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika RI.
Judarwanto, Widodo, dr., SpA, (2005) Implikasi flu burung pada manusia.
Centers for disease control and prevention, (2019). Principles of Epidemiology, 2nd Edition; An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
WHO (2006). The Desease in birth.
Depkes RI, (2006). Waspada Flu Burung: www.depkes.go.id.
Ajeng Trias Endarti, Ratna Djuwita, (2006). Epidemiologi Diskriptif Penyakit Avian Flu di Lima Povinsi di Indonesia 2005-2006, Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1, No. 1.
Effendy, N, (2007). Survei Cepat Karakteristik dan Perilaku Masyarakat Terhadap Flu Burung Dengan Sistem Informasi Geografis Di Desa Bulu Cenrana Kab. Sidrap. Skripsi. Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat UNHAS. Makassar.
Marangon, S., and Capua, I, (2005). Control of AI in Italy : from “Stamping-out” Strategy to Emergency and Prophylactic vaccination, Proc. International Conf on Avian Influenza, Paris, OIE.
Anonymous, (2006).Avian Infleunza Backgrounder, American Veterinary Medical Association.
Brodersen J, Schwartz LM, Woloshin S, (2014). Overdiagnosis: how cancer screening can turn indolent pathology into illness. APMIS Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand. 122:683–689.
Murniati, D., Giriputro, S., & Hadinegoro, S. R. S, (2016). Karakteristik klinis dan epidemiologis avian influenza A (H5N1) anak di Indonesia, tahun 2005-2007. Sari Pediatri, 12(5), 347-58.
Murad, C, (2016). Gambaran Pengetahuan Masyarakat mengenai Influenza pada Manusia di Kabupaten Indramayu dan Majalengka sebagai Wilayah Kejadian Luar Biasa H5N1 pada Unggas di Jawa Barat Tahun 2014. Jurnal Sistem Kesehatan, 1(3).
WHO. (2020). COVID-19. Accessed from : https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf
Hsu, L. Y., Lee, C. C., Green, J. A., Ang, B., Paton, N. I., Lee, L., ... & Leo, Y. S, (2003). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Singapore: clinical features of index patient and initial contacts. Emerging infectious diseases, 9(6), 713.
CDC, (2005). SARS. Accessed from : https://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/faq.html
Ronald Winardi, dkk, (2017) Accessed from : https://kalbemed.com/ DesktopModules/EasyDNNNew/DocumentDownload.ashx?portalid=0&moduleid=471&articleid=902&documentid=1025
Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, Al-Rabiah FA, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Barrak A, Flemban H, Al-Nassir WN, Balkhy HH, Al-Hakeem RF, Makhdoom HQ, Zumla AI, Memish ZA (September 2013). "Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 13(9): 752–61. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70204-4. PMID 23891402
Pulungethods Mol Biol ; 1282: 1– 23.
Wang Z, Qiang W, Ke H, (2020). A Handbook of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia Control and Prevention. Hubei Science and Technologi Press. China.
Wan Y, Shang J, Grahan, A. S. S. SARS Ke MERS, Dahsyatnya Makhluk Kecil. Accessed from : http://digilib.unimed.ac.id/1010/
Andi Gamazi, (2015). E-Book : Serangan Dahsyat Tahun Ini. Bahaya Flu Arab MERS CoV. Accessed from : https:// books. google. co.id /books ?id = tiO6CgAAQBAJ&lpg =PA74&ots=bpYIEgMjLU&dq=menggigil%20MERS&hl=id&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q=menggigil%20MERS&f=false
Al-Abdallat MM, Payne DC, Alqasrawi S, Rha B, Tohme RA, Abedi GR, et al. Hospital-associated outbreak of middle east respiratory syndrome Al-Abdallat MM, Payne DC, Alqasrawi S, Rha B, Tohme RA, Abedi GR, et al. Hospital-associated outbreak of middle east respiratory syndrome.
CDC, (2009). H1N1. Accessed from : https://www.cdc.gov/H1n1flu/surveillanceqa.htm
Murniati, D., & Giriputro, S, (2016). Manfaat Oseltamivir Terhadap Perbaikan Klinis Kasus Pandemi Influenza Baru A (H1N1) 2009 Anak. Sari Pediatri, 14(5), 309-15.
ICTV (International Commitee On Taxonomy Of Viruses), (2011). Accessed from : https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_9th_report/positive-sense-rna-viruses-2011/w/posrna_viruses/222/coronaviridae
Vincent C. C. Cheng, Susanna K. P. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo, and Kwok Yung Yuen, (2007). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection. From : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2176051/
CHP, (2019). MERS-CoV. Accessed from : https://www.chp.gov.hk/en/wapdf/100382.html?page=2 (5)
Baratawidjaja, K.G, (2006). Imunologi Dasar. Edisi ke Tujuh. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia
CDC, (2012). Pathogenesis of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (diunduh pada tanggal 24 April 2020)
Ziebuhr, J, (2015). New Species. s.l. : ICTV.
Fehr AR, Perlman S. (2015). Coronavirus: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. Mam R, Baris RS, Li F. 2020. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decadelong structural studies of SARS. J. Virol.American Society for Microbiology: p 1-24.
World Health Organization, (2020). Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations,diakses pada tanggal 13 april 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations.
WHO, (2020). COVID-19. Accessed from : https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf
PAHO-WDC, (2020.
Ali S. Omrani, Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq,and Ziad A. 2016. Memish. Fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809235/
CDC, (2019). MERS-CoV.Accessed from : https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/about/transmission.html
Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus-Induced Lung Epithelial Cytokines Exacerbate SARS Pathogenesis by Modulating Intrinsic Functions of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Dendritic Cells. Journal of Virology, 83(7), 3039 LP-3048. https://doi.org/10.1128/oJVI.01792-08
Accessed from : https://www.who.int/ith/diseases/sars/en/
Morishima T, Togashi T, Yokota S. Encephalitis and encephalopathy associated with an inflfluenza epidemic in Japan. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:512-7.
Kilpatrick AM, Chmura AA, Gibbons DW, Fleischer RC, Marra PP, Daszak Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Predicting the global spread of H5N1 avian influenza. 2006 Dec 19; 103(51):19368-73.
Chotpitayasunondh T, Ungchusak K, Hanshaoworakul W. Human disease from influenza A (H5N1), Thailand 2004. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:201-9.
Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, et.al. Avian influenza (H5N1) infecttion in humans. N Engl J Med. 2005 : 1374-1385.
Dewi M, Sardikin G, Sri R. Karakteristik klinis dan Epidemiologis Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Anak di Indonesia, Tahun 2005-2007. Sari Pediatri. 2011;12:5.
Kaiser L, Wat C, Mills T. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1667- 72.
Published
19-04-2021